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Coronavirus Live Updates: Beijing Sets Stringent New Quarantine Rules Coronavirus Live Updates: Beijing Sets Stringent New Quarantine Rules
(about 1 hour later)
READ UPDATES IN CHINESE: 新冠病毒疫情最新消息汇总READ UPDATES IN CHINESE: 新冠病毒疫情最新消息汇总
Chinese state-run television announced on its website on Friday evening that everyone returning to Beijing would be required to isolate themselves for 14 days.Chinese state-run television announced on its website on Friday evening that everyone returning to Beijing would be required to isolate themselves for 14 days.
Anyone who does not comply “shall be held accountable according to law,” according to a text of the order released by state television. The order was issued by a Communist Party “leading group” at the municipal level, not the national Communist Party.Anyone who does not comply “shall be held accountable according to law,” according to a text of the order released by state television. The order was issued by a Communist Party “leading group” at the municipal level, not the national Communist Party.
It was the latest sign that China’s leaders were still struggling to set the right balance between restarting the economy and continuing to fight the coronavirus outbreak.It was the latest sign that China’s leaders were still struggling to set the right balance between restarting the economy and continuing to fight the coronavirus outbreak.
On Tuesday and Wednesday, the country’s top officials met and issued orders that included a mandate to help people to return to workplaces from their hometowns. Tens of millions had gone home to celebrate Lunar New Year holidays before the government acknowledged the seriousness of the epidemic. They have faced local government checkpoints on the way back to work and then lengthy quarantines upon their return to big cities.On Tuesday and Wednesday, the country’s top officials met and issued orders that included a mandate to help people to return to workplaces from their hometowns. Tens of millions had gone home to celebrate Lunar New Year holidays before the government acknowledged the seriousness of the epidemic. They have faced local government checkpoints on the way back to work and then lengthy quarantines upon their return to big cities.
But while national leaders may be worried that travel restrictions and quarantines may be preventing companies from finding enough workers to resume full production, that did not stop Beijing municipal leaders from further tightening controls on Friday evening in the city.But while national leaders may be worried that travel restrictions and quarantines may be preventing companies from finding enough workers to resume full production, that did not stop Beijing municipal leaders from further tightening controls on Friday evening in the city.
The policy may reduce the chances that people returning from the hinterlands could infect the country’s elite.The policy may reduce the chances that people returning from the hinterlands could infect the country’s elite.
The new rules also require those returning to the city to give advance warning of their arrival to the authorities in their residential area. China maintained extensive controls on citizens’ movements under Mao, and some of the institutions and rules from that period have been re-emerging lately.The new rules also require those returning to the city to give advance warning of their arrival to the authorities in their residential area. China maintained extensive controls on citizens’ movements under Mao, and some of the institutions and rules from that period have been re-emerging lately.
Even before Beijing issued its new rules, so-called neighborhood committees had been playing an increasingly assertive role across the country, including in Shanghai. They have been demanding that recent returnees isolate themselves for 14 days upon arrival, venturing out for little except food.Even before Beijing issued its new rules, so-called neighborhood committees had been playing an increasingly assertive role across the country, including in Shanghai. They have been demanding that recent returnees isolate themselves for 14 days upon arrival, venturing out for little except food.
For more than a month, medical workers in Hubei, the province at the center of the coronavirus outbreak, have been working nearly nonstop even as they struggled with a shortage of personal protective equipment such as masks, gowns and safety goggles. In the hospital where Yu Yajie works, nurses, doctors and other medical professionals fighting the new coronavirus have also been fighting dire shortages. They have used tape to patch up battered protective masks, repeatedly reused goggles meant for one-time use, and wrapped their shoes in plastic bags for lack of specialized coverings.
For the first time on Friday, China disclosed figures that drove home the risks faced by those on the front line: 1,716 medical workers have contracted the virus and six of them have died. Of those people, 1,502 were in Hubei Province, with 1,102 of them in Wuhan, the provincial capital and the center of the outbreak. Ms. Yu is now lying at home, feverish and fearful that she has been infected with the virus. She and other employees at the hospital said a lack of effective protective wear had left medical workers like her vulnerable in Wuhan, the central Chinese city at the heart of the epidemic that has engulfed this region.
The announcement was the first official confirmation about the number of infected medical workers, and is likely to ratchet up fears about the spread of the virus. “There are risks there simply aren’t enough resources,” Ms. Yu, an administrator at Wuhan Central Hospital, said in a brief telephone interview, adding that she was too weak to speak at length.
“I think it’s quite concerning,” said Benjamin Cowling, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Hong Kong. “Health care workers face the challenge of caring for a substantial number of patients in Wuhan. It’s worrying to discover that a number of them have been infected.” Chinese medical workers at the forefront of the fight against the coronavirus epidemic are often becoming its victims, in part because of government missteps and logistical hurdles.
Zeng Yixin, deputy director of the National Health Commission, said the numbers of infected workers represented 3.8 percent of China’s overall confirmed infections as of Feb. 11. The strength or vulnerability of China’s medical workers could shape how well the Communist Party weathers its worst political crisis in years. Li Wenliang, a doctor, died from the coronavirus last week, after he had been punished by the police for warning friends of the outbreak. His death ignited a wave of fury in China, where he was lionized as a medical martyr to officials who put political control ahead of health.
He added that further research was needed to ascertain whether the infections spread throughout the hospital or within the community.
Updated Feb. 10, 2020
Medical workers, struggling to both treat patients and keep themselves safe, have resorted to begging from friends, putting out frequent calls for donations, and using tape to patch up torn masks and gowns.
Many doctors and nurses there say they eat just one meal a day because going to the restroom means removing and discarding safety gowns that they would not be able to replace.
During the SARS outbreak of 2002-3, 961 medical workers were infected, representing 18 percent of all infections, according to government data. About 1 percent of the medical workers infected with SARS died, a medical expert, Xu Dezhong, told Xinhua, China’s official news agency.
International Olympic Committee officials on Friday said that the Summer Games in Tokyo would go on as planned, citing discussions with the World Health Organization.International Olympic Committee officials on Friday said that the Summer Games in Tokyo would go on as planned, citing discussions with the World Health Organization.
“Certainly the advice we have received externally from the W.H.O. is that there is no case for any contingency plans or canceling the games or moving the games,” John Coates, the head of an I.O.C. inspection team, told reporters. Asked if he was “100 percent confident” that the Games would take place, Mr. Coates said “Yes.”“Certainly the advice we have received externally from the W.H.O. is that there is no case for any contingency plans or canceling the games or moving the games,” John Coates, the head of an I.O.C. inspection team, told reporters. Asked if he was “100 percent confident” that the Games would take place, Mr. Coates said “Yes.”
Updated Feb. 10, 2020
A spokesman for the World Health Organization said in an emailed statement that the organization was not advising that large gatherings be canceled.A spokesman for the World Health Organization said in an emailed statement that the organization was not advising that large gatherings be canceled.
“It’s important to remember there is never zero risk with any mass gathering,” Tarik Jasarevic, a spokesman for the W.H.O., said in a statement.
Dr. Michael Ryan, the head of the W.H.O.’s Health Emergencies Program, told reporters at a briefing on Friday that experts were monitoring the situation and no final guidance had been given on the matter.Dr. Michael Ryan, the head of the W.H.O.’s Health Emergencies Program, told reporters at a briefing on Friday that experts were monitoring the situation and no final guidance had been given on the matter.
“It’s not the role of W.H.O. to call off or not call off any event,” Mr. Ryan said, adding that the organization was offering technical advice about risk assessment and response measures. “It is the decision of hosting countries and the organizing agencies to make that decision.”“It’s not the role of W.H.O. to call off or not call off any event,” Mr. Ryan said, adding that the organization was offering technical advice about risk assessment and response measures. “It is the decision of hosting countries and the organizing agencies to make that decision.”
The Games are scheduled to take place between July 24 and Aug. 9 this summer in Japan, the country that has endured the largest number of coronavirus cases outside China — over 250, including 218 aboard a cruise ship quarantined in Yokohama. On Thursday, Japanese authorities announced the country’s first death of a patient who had contracted the virus.The Games are scheduled to take place between July 24 and Aug. 9 this summer in Japan, the country that has endured the largest number of coronavirus cases outside China — over 250, including 218 aboard a cruise ship quarantined in Yokohama. On Thursday, Japanese authorities announced the country’s first death of a patient who had contracted the virus.
Several international sports events have already been canceled or postponed in China because of the outbreak, including the Formula One Grand Prix in Shanghai, and two Olympics qualifying competitions for boxing and badminton. And on Friday, Japan’s health ministry announced that a local government official who earlier this week helped transfer patients with the coronavirus from the quarantined Diamond Princess cruise ship had tested positive for the coronavirus.
More than 135 people aboard the cruise ship have tested positive for the virus, and most of the 3,400 anxious passengers and crew of the ship remain onboard in quarantine. More are getting sick — possibly infecting one another — and health officials have raised the possibility of prolonging the quarantine, now set to expire next Wednesday.
The government official, a man in his thirties, helped transfer infected patients from the cruise ship on Monday afternoon, the health ministry said in a statement. The transportation process took about 40 minutes and the man was wearing goggles and a mask.
The statement said the official had a fever the same night, and went to a hospital before being diagnosed on Friday. The announcement follows another on Wednesday from the health ministry who said another official had all been infected after helping to evaluate passengers and crew members for symptoms.
A senior health official in Wuhan, China, the center of the outbreak, has called on residents who have recovered from the coronavirus to donate blood plasma, believing their naturally produced antibodies could be used to treat patients who are still sick.A senior health official in Wuhan, China, the center of the outbreak, has called on residents who have recovered from the coronavirus to donate blood plasma, believing their naturally produced antibodies could be used to treat patients who are still sick.
Dr. Zhang Dingyu, the director of the Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, made his appeal on Thursday after Chinese researchers said they believed that such antibody treatments could help people recover from the virus.Dr. Zhang Dingyu, the director of the Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, made his appeal on Thursday after Chinese researchers said they believed that such antibody treatments could help people recover from the virus.
The search for a drug capable of treating or curing the virus has frustrated researchers, as rates of infection and deaths continue to mount.The search for a drug capable of treating or curing the virus has frustrated researchers, as rates of infection and deaths continue to mount.
The government is currently prescribing a combination of antiviral drugs and traditional Chinese medicine. But on Thursday, China National Biotec Group, a state-owned company under the Ministry of Health, said it had found that administering a round of human antibodies from the survivors to more than 10 critically ill patients caused inflammation levels to drop significantly after 12 to 24 hours of treatment.The government is currently prescribing a combination of antiviral drugs and traditional Chinese medicine. But on Thursday, China National Biotec Group, a state-owned company under the Ministry of Health, said it had found that administering a round of human antibodies from the survivors to more than 10 critically ill patients caused inflammation levels to drop significantly after 12 to 24 hours of treatment.
The company called the use of plasma “the most effective method, which can significantly reduce the mortality of critically ill patients.”The company called the use of plasma “the most effective method, which can significantly reduce the mortality of critically ill patients.”
Benjamin Cowling, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Hong Kong, said the use of antibodies to treat the coronavirus was “a really good idea,” noting that it had been used before in influenza pandemics. But he cautioned that it needed to be proven in a controlled trial.Benjamin Cowling, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Hong Kong, said the use of antibodies to treat the coronavirus was “a really good idea,” noting that it had been used before in influenza pandemics. But he cautioned that it needed to be proven in a controlled trial.
“It’s basically transferring immunity from a patient who has recovered to a patient still fighting the infection, and then helping them to recover,” he said.“It’s basically transferring immunity from a patient who has recovered to a patient still fighting the infection, and then helping them to recover,” he said.
Numbers continued to climb after the government changed the criteria by which it tracks confirmed cases. China on Friday reported 5,090 new coronavirus cases and 121 new deaths in the previous 24 hours.Numbers continued to climb after the government changed the criteria by which it tracks confirmed cases. China on Friday reported 5,090 new coronavirus cases and 121 new deaths in the previous 24 hours.
The authorities said a total of 63,851 people had been infected by the coronavirus and at least 1,380 had been killed by the disease. Most of the cases occurred in Hubei Province, the center of the outbreak, which recorded 4,823 new cases and 116 deaths over the same period.The authorities said a total of 63,851 people had been infected by the coronavirus and at least 1,380 had been killed by the disease. Most of the cases occurred in Hubei Province, the center of the outbreak, which recorded 4,823 new cases and 116 deaths over the same period.
The tally in Hubei jumped most drastically on Thursday after the authorities changed the diagnostic criteria for counting new cases. The government now takes into account cases diagnosed in clinical settings, including the use of CT scans, and not just those confirmed with specialized testing kits.The tally in Hubei jumped most drastically on Thursday after the authorities changed the diagnostic criteria for counting new cases. The government now takes into account cases diagnosed in clinical settings, including the use of CT scans, and not just those confirmed with specialized testing kits.
A Hong Kong clinic designated to treat suspected coronavirus cases suffered a second arson attack early Friday, officials said.A Hong Kong clinic designated to treat suspected coronavirus cases suffered a second arson attack early Friday, officials said.
Hong Kong’s Hospital Authority said it “seriously condemned” the attack, against an outpatient clinic in the New Territories district of Tsuen Wan. A police spokeswoman said it had occurred overnight and left a door charred. The first attack, on Saturday afternoon, damaged an air-conditioner. No one was wounded in either attack.Hong Kong’s Hospital Authority said it “seriously condemned” the attack, against an outpatient clinic in the New Territories district of Tsuen Wan. A police spokeswoman said it had occurred overnight and left a door charred. The first attack, on Saturday afternoon, damaged an air-conditioner. No one was wounded in either attack.
The clinic is about four miles from an apartment building where dozens of residents were evacuated this week after two residents on different floors were found to be infected, raising fresh fears about how the virus spreads. (Officials said an unsealed pipe might be to blame.)The clinic is about four miles from an apartment building where dozens of residents were evacuated this week after two residents on different floors were found to be infected, raising fresh fears about how the virus spreads. (Officials said an unsealed pipe might be to blame.)
There were 56 confirmed cases in the city as of Friday. Fearing a wider outbreak, residents have been staging small-scale protests at several clinics assigned to treat people with mild symptoms of the virus. Late last month, the government shelved a plan to turn an unoccupied housing project into a quarantine facility after protesters set a fire in the lobby.There were 56 confirmed cases in the city as of Friday. Fearing a wider outbreak, residents have been staging small-scale protests at several clinics assigned to treat people with mild symptoms of the virus. Late last month, the government shelved a plan to turn an unoccupied housing project into a quarantine facility after protesters set a fire in the lobby.
As public anger and anxiety mount, the Beijing-backed government has been accused by many residents of not doing enough to contain the spread of the virus, including the refusal to quickly order a complete shutdown of the border with mainland China. The authorities have gradually restricted arrivals from mainland China over the past few weeks.As public anger and anxiety mount, the Beijing-backed government has been accused by many residents of not doing enough to contain the spread of the virus, including the refusal to quickly order a complete shutdown of the border with mainland China. The authorities have gradually restricted arrivals from mainland China over the past few weeks.
Carrie Lam, Hong Kong’s chief executive, said on Friday that her administration would do its best to repatriate more than 2,000 of the city’s residents stranded in Hubei province and aboard the Diamond Princess, the cruise ship quarantined off Japan’s coast.Carrie Lam, Hong Kong’s chief executive, said on Friday that her administration would do its best to repatriate more than 2,000 of the city’s residents stranded in Hubei province and aboard the Diamond Princess, the cruise ship quarantined off Japan’s coast.
The Hong Kong government has received more than 1,000 requests for help from over 300 cities across Hubei, including from Wuhan, Mrs. Lam said. Ten people from Hong Kong in the region were confirmed to have been infected.The Hong Kong government has received more than 1,000 requests for help from over 300 cities across Hubei, including from Wuhan, Mrs. Lam said. Ten people from Hong Kong in the region were confirmed to have been infected.
Some 330 Hong Kong residents remain stuck on the cruise ship in Japan, and 11 of them were infected, officials said. The Hong Kong authorities are pressing their Japanese counterparts to consider allowing its citizens to be quarantined onshore and to get tested for the virus as soon as possible, said John Lee, the city’s security minister, on Friday.Some 330 Hong Kong residents remain stuck on the cruise ship in Japan, and 11 of them were infected, officials said. The Hong Kong authorities are pressing their Japanese counterparts to consider allowing its citizens to be quarantined onshore and to get tested for the virus as soon as possible, said John Lee, the city’s security minister, on Friday.
The coronavirus has killed more than 1,300 and infected tens of thousands in China. Those are alarming statistics, but a much more common illness, influenza, kills about 400,000 every year, including 34,200 Americans last flu season and 61,099 the year before.The coronavirus has killed more than 1,300 and infected tens of thousands in China. Those are alarming statistics, but a much more common illness, influenza, kills about 400,000 every year, including 34,200 Americans last flu season and 61,099 the year before.
There remains deep uncertainty about the new coronavirus’s mortality rate, with the high-end estimate that it is up to 20 times that of the flu, but some estimates go as low as 0.16 percent for those affected outside of China’s overwhelmed Hubei Province. That’s about on par with the flu.There remains deep uncertainty about the new coronavirus’s mortality rate, with the high-end estimate that it is up to 20 times that of the flu, but some estimates go as low as 0.16 percent for those affected outside of China’s overwhelmed Hubei Province. That’s about on par with the flu.
While the metrics of public health might put the flu alongside or even ahead of the new coronavirus for sheer deadliness, the mind has its own ways of measuring danger.While the metrics of public health might put the flu alongside or even ahead of the new coronavirus for sheer deadliness, the mind has its own ways of measuring danger.
Experts used to believe that people gauged risk like actuaries, parsing out cost-benefit analyses every time a merging car came too close or local crime rates spiked. But a wave of psychological experiments in the 1980s upended this thinking.Experts used to believe that people gauged risk like actuaries, parsing out cost-benefit analyses every time a merging car came too close or local crime rates spiked. But a wave of psychological experiments in the 1980s upended this thinking.
Researchers instead found that people use a set of mental shortcuts for measuring danger. And they tend to do it unconsciously, meaning that instinct can play a large role.Researchers instead found that people use a set of mental shortcuts for measuring danger. And they tend to do it unconsciously, meaning that instinct can play a large role.
The coronavirus, which has created a wave of fear, may be a case in point.The coronavirus, which has created a wave of fear, may be a case in point.
“This hits all the hot buttons that lead to heightened risk perception,” said Paul Slovic, a University of Oregon psychologist who helped pioneer modern risk psychology.“This hits all the hot buttons that lead to heightened risk perception,” said Paul Slovic, a University of Oregon psychologist who helped pioneer modern risk psychology.
At least five people fled coronavirus quarantine across Russia, local news media reported on Friday, citing frustration, erratic and inconsistent government policies, and bad conditions in the hospitals where they were held.At least five people fled coronavirus quarantine across Russia, local news media reported on Friday, citing frustration, erratic and inconsistent government policies, and bad conditions in the hospitals where they were held.
Alla Ilyina, 32, a woman from St. Petersburg, had enough patience to stay for only one day at a hospital in Russia’s second-largest city. She detailed how she had broken a lock in her room and sneaked away while doctors were distracted by another patient.Alla Ilyina, 32, a woman from St. Petersburg, had enough patience to stay for only one day at a hospital in Russia’s second-largest city. She detailed how she had broken a lock in her room and sneaked away while doctors were distracted by another patient.
“I am a reasonable person, if someone told me that there was a suspicion, if doctors didn’t tell me that I was healthy, if I had not done three tests in separate hospitals, I would sit there,” Ms. Ilyina told reporters in an interview, broadcast on Russian television. “I don’t want to infect my relatives or threaten anybody, but I just don’t understand why an absolutely healthy person should be held somewhere.”“I am a reasonable person, if someone told me that there was a suspicion, if doctors didn’t tell me that I was healthy, if I had not done three tests in separate hospitals, I would sit there,” Ms. Ilyina told reporters in an interview, broadcast on Russian television. “I don’t want to infect my relatives or threaten anybody, but I just don’t understand why an absolutely healthy person should be held somewhere.”
Three more people escaped quarantine in the same hospital, Fontanka.ru reported on Friday.Three more people escaped quarantine in the same hospital, Fontanka.ru reported on Friday.
In the city of Samara, Guzel Neder, 34, escaped through the window of another hospital. After staying in quarantine for four days, Mrs. Neder called a testing center and a specialist said if she hadn’t received a positive result within two hours, “then you should be fine.”In the city of Samara, Guzel Neder, 34, escaped through the window of another hospital. After staying in quarantine for four days, Mrs. Neder called a testing center and a specialist said if she hadn’t received a positive result within two hours, “then you should be fine.”
“My son already felt well, he didn’t have any fever symptoms, but doctors deliberately made us stay for longer, so that we wouldn’t leave, to ‘fulfill the order’ of isolating people, coming from China,” she said. She described conditions at the hospital, where doctors didn’t wear any protective gear.“My son already felt well, he didn’t have any fever symptoms, but doctors deliberately made us stay for longer, so that we wouldn’t leave, to ‘fulfill the order’ of isolating people, coming from China,” she said. She described conditions at the hospital, where doctors didn’t wear any protective gear.
Only two confirmed cases of coronavirus have been reported in Russia so far. Hundreds of Russian and Chinese nationals have been quarantined across the country for the 14-day period, following recommendations from the World Health Organization.Only two confirmed cases of coronavirus have been reported in Russia so far. Hundreds of Russian and Chinese nationals have been quarantined across the country for the 14-day period, following recommendations from the World Health Organization.
Lee Hsien Loong, the prime minister of Singapore, said on Friday that it was possible the city-state could fall into recession as the coronavirus spreads.Lee Hsien Loong, the prime minister of Singapore, said on Friday that it was possible the city-state could fall into recession as the coronavirus spreads.
“I think the impact will be significant at least in the next couple of quarters,” said Mr. Lee, in a video posted on his Facebook page.“I think the impact will be significant at least in the next couple of quarters,” said Mr. Lee, in a video posted on his Facebook page.
At Singapore Changi Airport, the number of flights has fallen by a third and travelers who have recently visited mainland China are not allowed to disembark.At Singapore Changi Airport, the number of flights has fallen by a third and travelers who have recently visited mainland China are not allowed to disembark.
“It’s a very intense outbreak,” said Mr. Lee, who visited the airport to show his support for the workers there. “It is already much more than SARS, and economies of the region are much more interlinked together.”“It’s a very intense outbreak,” said Mr. Lee, who visited the airport to show his support for the workers there. “It is already much more than SARS, and economies of the region are much more interlinked together.”
Singapore, whose economy is particularly sensitive to global fluctuations, has already seen a slowdown in growth. The economy is estimated to have expanded by 0.7 percent in 2019, compared to 3.1 percent the year before, according to government statistics.Singapore, whose economy is particularly sensitive to global fluctuations, has already seen a slowdown in growth. The economy is estimated to have expanded by 0.7 percent in 2019, compared to 3.1 percent the year before, according to government statistics.
“China particularly is a much bigger factor in the region and therefore I can’t say whether we’ll have a recession or not,” Mr. Lee added. “It’s possible, but definitely our economy will take a hit.”“China particularly is a much bigger factor in the region and therefore I can’t say whether we’ll have a recession or not,” Mr. Lee added. “It’s possible, but definitely our economy will take a hit.”
The Chinese government failed to sound a public warning in the early days of the outbreak even though scientists were aware of human-to-human transmission, a doctor from Wuhan wrote in a paper published by The Lancet this week.
Dr. Zhang Hong of Zhongnan Hospital wrote that the local authorities had allowed more than five million people to leave Wuhan to travel for the Lunar New Year holiday despite warnings from Chinese scientists.
“Early detection and early reporting were delayed,” Dr. Zhang wrote.
The paper was a rare instance of a medical professional criticizing the government, especially at a time when doctors and nurses have come under pressure not to speak out. Dr. Zhang also wrote that doctors did not understand the severity and contagiousness of the new coronavirus early on, and that medical workers failed to fully protect themselves as a result.
He wrote that the supplies of protective equipment in hospitals were severely insufficient and were worsened by the implementation of traffic controls after the government sealed off cities across China. He called on the government to “pay attention to the front-line doctors and provide adequate protective equipment to reduce their risk of infection.”
Overstretched hospitals were forced to turn patients away as the virus spread, “inevitably increasing morbidity and mortality,” he added.
The authorities in Wuhan have admitted that public announcements about the virus were delayed. In late January, when the outbreak was spreading through Wuhan, the city’s mayor, Zhou Xianwang, acknowledged that the disclosures had not been timely, but said his hands were tied because he could only publicize it “in accordance with the law.”
Reporting and research was contributed by Keith Bradsher, Ivan Nechepurenko, Tariq Panja, Roni Rabin, Sui-Lee Wee, Choe Sang-Hun, Richard C. Paddock, Elaine Yu, Motoko Rich, Lin Qiqing, Karen Zraick, Amie Tsang, Amber Wang, Zoe Mou, Albee Zhang, Yiwei Wang, and Claire Fu.Reporting and research was contributed by Keith Bradsher, Ivan Nechepurenko, Tariq Panja, Roni Rabin, Sui-Lee Wee, Choe Sang-Hun, Richard C. Paddock, Elaine Yu, Motoko Rich, Lin Qiqing, Karen Zraick, Amie Tsang, Amber Wang, Zoe Mou, Albee Zhang, Yiwei Wang, and Claire Fu.