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Covid vaccine: How will the UK jab millions of people? Covid vaccine: How will the UK jab millions of people?
(about 16 hours later)
The UK has launched its biggest mass-vaccination programme, aimed at protecting tens of millions of people from Covid-19 within months.The UK has launched its biggest mass-vaccination programme, aimed at protecting tens of millions of people from Covid-19 within months.
In a race against a faster-spreading variant of coronavirus, ministers have pinned their hopes of ending a third national lockdown on protecting the most vulnerable groups by spring.In a race against a faster-spreading variant of coronavirus, ministers have pinned their hopes of ending a third national lockdown on protecting the most vulnerable groups by spring.
But there are huge challenges, not least the unprecedented scale but also the need for rigorous safety checks and deep-freeze storage as well as establishing enough vaccination centres and recruiting enough vaccinators. But there are huge challenges, not least the unprecedented scale and supply demands but also the need for rigorous safety checks and deep-freeze storage as well as establishing enough vaccination centres and recruiting enough vaccinators.
What is the plan?What is the plan?
The government aims to offer vaccines to 15 million people - the over-70s, healthcare workers and those required to shield - by mid-February and millions more by spring. By autumn, the rest of the adult population, another 21 million people, will be offered a vaccine. The government aims to offer vaccines to 15 million people - the over-70s, healthcare workers and those required to shield - by mid-February and millions more of the over-50s and other priority groups by spring.
They are thought to represent 90-99% of those at risk of dying from Covid-19.
By autumn, the rest of the adult population, another 21 million people, will be offered a vaccine - possibly prioritising front-line workers, such as the police, the fire service and teachers.
The speedy rollout of the vaccine to vulnerable people is seen as critical to reducing the pandemic's death toll and relieving pressure on the NHS.The speedy rollout of the vaccine to vulnerable people is seen as critical to reducing the pandemic's death toll and relieving pressure on the NHS.
But to meet this target, ministers need to deliver more than two million jabs a week by the end of January, in one of the largest civilian logistical operations launched in Britain. But to meet its February target, ministers need to deliver more than two million jabs a week by the end of January, in one of the largest civilian logistical operations launched in in the UK.
Since the beginning of last month, about 2.4 million people across the UK have been vaccinated, Prime Minister Boris Johnson said on Monday. But more than 13 million people will need to receive jabs in the next five weeks. And the UK's chief medical adviser, Prof Chris Whitty, has described such a timetable as "realistic but not easy". Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said it will require an "unprecedented national effort" but the government is throwing "everything at it" to deliver "hundreds of thousands" of jabs each day.
The NHS began administering a vaccine made by Pfizer-BioNTech. More than four million people have now received a first dose of a vaccine, and just over 450,000 people have had a second, latest government figures show.
But the operation is being significantly ramped up following the approval of a second vaccine, from Oxford University and AstraZeneca. The NHS began administering a vaccine made by Pfizer-BioNTech at the beginning of December. But the operation has been significantly ramped up following the approval of a second vaccine, from Oxford University and AstraZeneca.
A third vaccine, from Moderna, was approved on Friday. A third vaccine, from Moderna, has also been approved.
And the campaign to reach as many people as possible as quickly as possible has also been boosted by a shift in policy - to prioritise the first dose of either vaccine, with a second dose up to 12 weeks later, a bigger gap than originally planned. The campaign to reach as many people as possible as quickly as possible was boosted by a shift in policy in early January - to prioritise the first dose of either vaccine, with a second dose up to 12 weeks later, a bigger gap than originally planned.
Mr Johnson has said it would require an "unprecedented national effort" but the government was throwing "everything at it" to deliver "hundreds of thousands" of jabs each day.
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Covid vaccine: When will you be eligible?Covid vaccine: When will you be eligible?
How many have been vaccinated so far?
The government needs to administer about 380,000 vaccine doses each day through the UK's National Health Service (NHS) if it is to reach the 15 million most vulnerable people by the middle of February.
The current seven-day average achieved has been just over 280,000 - so there is still some way to go.
But overall, more than four million people across the UK have now received their first dose, meaning half of those targeted to start with - the over 80s, care home residents and health and care staff - have now been vaccinated.
This progress means the UK continues to be among the countries with the highest vaccination rates globally.
But within the UK, there is some regional variation.
South West England and the North East and Yorkshire have reached the highest percentage of people with their first doses so far.
Where are the vaccines coming from?Where are the vaccines coming from?
The UK is currently receiving doses of two vaccines approved by the medicine regulator. The Pfizer-BioNTech jab - the first given the green light - is being imported from Puurs, Belgium. Meanwhile, the Oxford vaccine is being made in Britain, by two biotech companies: The UK is currently receiving doses of two vaccines approved by the medicine regulator. The Pfizer-BioNTech jab - the first given the green light - is being imported from Puurs, Belgium.
The Oxford vaccine, meanwhile, is being made in Britain, by two biotech companies:
Oxford BioMedica, based in OxfordOxford BioMedica, based in Oxford
Cobra Biologics, based at Keele Science Park, StaffsCobra Biologics, based at Keele Science Park, Staffs
Another company, Wockhardt, based in Wrexham, fills the vials and packages them for use Another company, Wockhardt, based in Wrexham, fills the vials and packages them for use.
But the country's initial doses of the Oxford vaccine will actually come from Europe, UK Vaccine Taskforce manufacturing lead Ian McCubbin has said. Supplies of the third vaccine to be approved, made by US company Moderna, will come from Switzerland or Spain but are not expected to be available until spring.
Supplies of the third vaccine to be approved, made by US company Moderna, are not expected to be available until spring. Are there hold-ups?
Is there a hold-up?
There are a number of challenges in what is called the vaccine "supply chain" - the logistics of how the jab gets from manufacturers to people.There are a number of challenges in what is called the vaccine "supply chain" - the logistics of how the jab gets from manufacturers to people.
One challenge facing pharmaceutical companies globally has been a shortage of glass vials for the "fill and finish" stage of manufacture - when a vaccine is packaged for despatch. Although, unlike elsewhere, the UK is thought currently to have enough of this glassware in storage. Getting enough supplies in the first place, checking those supplies are up to scratch and transporting vaccines according to their requirements have all thrown up difficulties.
On top of this, Mr Johnson has referred to the "rate-limiting factor" of batch testing - the process of ensuring vaccines released by manufacturers are safe and up to standard. The prime minister has referred to "constraints on supply" which are making the rollout harder.
The UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority (MHRA) requires vaccines to be checked by the National Institute of Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) to ensure they are: The number of doses of the Pfizer vaccine will be lower than expected this month because the company is upgrading its factory in Belgium in order to increase production in March.
effective Mr Johnson has also referred to the "rate-limiting factor" of batch testing - the process of ensuring vaccines released by manufacturers are safe and up to standard.
structurally intact The UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority (MHRA) requires vaccines to be checked by the National Institute of Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) to ensure they are effective, structurally intact and free of contaminants.
free of contaminants This process can take a long time as it has to be done twice - before and after the vaccine enters vials. Ensuring a batch is sterile can take two weeks.
And this process can take a long time as it has to be done twice - before the vaccine enters vials and after. To deal with the challenge, the NIBSC had scaled up its capacity so "multiple batches can be tested simultaneously" and more technical staff are being taken on.
Testing a batch is sterile takes two weeks. There are also challenges when transporting the vaccines.
An MHRA spokesman said it was working closely with AstraZeneca "to ensure that batches of the vaccine are released as quickly as possible". And the NIBSC had scaled up its capacity so "multiple batches can be tested simultaneously". More technical staff are also being taken on. While the Oxford vaccine can be stored in fridges and transported in regular refrigerated vans or cool boxes, the Pfizer jab - made from genetic material - needs to be stored at -70C to prevent it from degrading. This means it needs to be transported in a carefully controlled deep-freeze delivery chain.
The UK's Vaccines Manufacturing and Innovation Centre chief executive Matthew Duchars says preparing enough vaccine is "quite a challenge" given the timeframe but "doable".
"It's not like we haven't done this before," he says. "But we've not done it so quickly before."
How is the vaccine transported?
The Oxford vaccine can be stored in fridges and transported in regular refrigerated vans or cool boxes. But the Pfizer jab - made from genetic material - needs to be stored at -70C to prevent it from degrading.
This means it needs to be transported in a carefully controlled deep-freeze delivery chain, with vials placed inside special ultra-cold thermal boxes, known as "shippers".
These boxes - fitted with temperature-monitoring devices - are taken by plane or lorry to the UK and onward to their destination. Once at a vaccination site, the consignment needs to be removed from cold storage by specially trained NHS staff and takes a few hours to defrost before being diluted in saline and given to patients.
The newly-approved Moderna jab requires temperatures of around -20C for shipping - similar to a normal freezer.
How will people be vaccinated?How will people be vaccinated?
People will be vaccinated in three main ways, at:People will be vaccinated in three main ways, at:
local GP practices and community pharmacieslocal GP practices and community pharmacies
hospital hubshospital hubs
mass vaccination sites across the countrymass vaccination sites across the country
In England, about 1,000 GP sites, 200 community pharmacies, 206 hospital hubs and seven mass vaccination sites are either fully up and running or expected to be operational in the coming days. The prime minister says no-one should have to travel more than 10 miles for a jab. Hundreds more sites are being used or coming online in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The government has urged the public to "play their part" in supporting "the largest vaccination programme in British history", including helping people attend their appointments.
The first seven mass vaccination centres in England were: In England, about 1,000 GP sites, 200 community pharmacies, 206 hospital hubs and 17 mass vaccination sites are offering services.
Robertson House, in Stevenage, Herts In Wales, the vaccine is being distributed at GP practices and by mobile units. And they hope to have 35 mass vaccination centres up and running in the coming weeks.
the ExCel Centre, in London In Scotland, as well as GPs surgeries, pharmacies and hospital hubs, there will also be a number of larger vaccination sites.
the Centre for Life, in Newcastle In Northern Ireland, vaccinations are taking place at GP practices and community halls and being delivered by mobile teams to care homes. Health and social care workers are also being vaccinated at seven main vaccination sites. These sites could be used to vaccinate members of the public as the programme expands later in the year.
the Etihad tennis centre, in Manchester Thousands of people have been trained to deliver the vaccines, with thousands more set to join the effort. The charity St John Ambulance Brigade is among those helping out.
Epsom Downs Racecourse, in Surrey
Ashton Gate Stadium, in Bristol
Millennium Point, in Birmingham
In Scotland, as well as GPs surgeries and hospital hubs, Motherwell Concert Hall and The Event Complex Aberdeen are being considered alongside sports venues.
So far, 80,000 people have been trained to deliver the vaccines, NHS boss Sir Simon Stevens says, with thousands more set to join the effort. The charity St John Ambulance Brigade is among those helping out.
And a further 21 quick-reaction vaccination teams will also be ready to deployed anywhere around the country, commander of military support to the vaccine delivery programme Brig Phil Prosser says.And a further 21 quick-reaction vaccination teams will also be ready to deployed anywhere around the country, commander of military support to the vaccine delivery programme Brig Phil Prosser says.
Who will be vaccinated? The prime minister says no-one should have to travel more than 10 miles for a jab.
While the NHS administers about 15 million flu vaccines across the UK every year, with all four nations achieving some of the highest vaccination rates among the over-65s in Europe, the scale and speed of the Covid jab rollout is unprecedented.
The aim is to inoculate as many people as possible aged over 16 in the UK. The most vulnerable take priority, as set out in a list of nine high-priority groups, covering about a quarter of the UK population. They are thought to represent 90-99% of those at risk of dying from Covid-19.
People aged over 80, front-line health staff and care home workers have been some of the first to receive the Pfizer jab.
GPs and local vaccination centres have been asked to ensure every care-home resident in their area is vaccinated by the end of January.
Together, care home residents, their carers and the over-80s make up an estimated 4.3 million people, while front-line healthcare and social care workers make up a further 3.8 million.
Is there enough vaccine?Is there enough vaccine?
The UK has ordered 100 million doses of the Oxford vaccine - enough to inoculate 50 million people.The UK has ordered 100 million doses of the Oxford vaccine - enough to inoculate 50 million people.
This, when combined with the 40 million ordered Pfizer jabs, will cover the entire population, Health Secretary Matt Hancock has said.This, when combined with the 40 million ordered Pfizer jabs, will cover the entire population, Health Secretary Matt Hancock has said.
The UK also has significant orders of the newly-approved Moderna vaccine and four other candidates.The UK also has significant orders of the newly-approved Moderna vaccine and four other candidates.
But having vaccines on order is not the same as having them ready to go. Of the 100 million Oxford jabs ordered, only 530,000 were ready for nationwide rollout on 4 January. Although, the government has said this number will rise to "tens of millions" by the end of March.But having vaccines on order is not the same as having them ready to go. Of the 100 million Oxford jabs ordered, only 530,000 were ready for nationwide rollout on 4 January. Although, the government has said this number will rise to "tens of millions" by the end of March.
Meanwhile, the UK has taken delivery of 22 consignments of the 40 million Pfizer jabs ordered. Pfizer says the number of doses it has sent to the UK is now "in the millions".
And Pfizer says the number it has sent to the UK is now "in the millions". The company has said that although shipments to the UK would be affected by upgrades to its production process this month, overall the country would receive the agreed volumes for the first three months of the year.
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Design by Lilly Huynh, Irene de la Torre Arenas and Sana Jasemi. Additional reporting by Smitha MundasadDesign by Lilly Huynh, Irene de la Torre Arenas and Sana Jasemi. Additional reporting by Smitha Mundasad